Khan’s Palace

The entire central complex of architectural monuments of Bolgar had shaped completely in the first half of the 14th century. It included the (Khan’s) palace, a monumental building with the corner pylon towers, rectangular in its design (inner dimensions: 24х29 m.), situated on the edge of the upper plateau of the site, 90 - 100 m. north-eastward of the cathedral Mosque, above the Red Chamber. The monument represents the remains of the brick and stone structure of rectangular shape, elongated from north to south, with round towers in its corners – a typical ensemble, usual for palace ensembles of Central Asia, Iran, and India. The excavations showed that the building was built on the place of the earlier defensive rampart that stretched under the building along its western wall from north to south. Preserved from that period are the walls: the foundations made of little crushed stone treated with limestone mortar, the base, the outer section of the wall was made of well-matched white-stone blocks, the internal part of the walls – made of plinthiform bricks, the central part was packed with crushed bricks on limestone mortar. At the next period of the building’s existence, the mihrab on the southern side was replaced by the entrance group made of bricks in the form of a large portal. The monument was studied with intervals from 1994; opened up were over 1000 sq. m.

The material accumulated through excavations makes it possible to date the beginning of its construction as mid-13th century. The study gave the evidence that the structure belongs to the complex of the khan’s court of Batu Khan (1208 - 1255), the ruler of the Golden Horde (from 1227), son of Juchi and grandson of Genghis Khan. This is seen from the architectural peculiar features of the complex and the body of the findings. Found in it were the items that date back to mid-13th century, including the coins minted in 1240 - 1259. In 2011 – 2012, the specialists of ZAO TSNRU performed the work for conservation of the preserved foundations, partial reconstruction of the lost elements of the building: the outer walls and corner towers were raised to the variable height from the 1st to the 3rd white-stone blocks as a string course with the inner brickwork made of plinthiform bricks; for museification of a fragment of the archaeological excavation with the revealed structures and the inner space of the monument. A protecting structure was installed over the complex that was designed by GUP Tatinvestgrazhdanproyekt, which represents an open tent having the area of some 2000 sq. m. The protective structure was made by contracting organisations OAO Alexeyevskdorstroy (Director General: F.V. Valiev) and OAO Stroydorservis (Director: I.I. Zaidarov) in full compliance with the UNESCO requirements for technologies used for protection of this unique monument of architecture against weather effects. The monolith polycarbonate produced by SafPlast, a Kazan plant, was used to cover the site.

Last updated: Apr, 04, 2013, 17:26
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